Christiana Figueres


Programmatic CDM

"Study on the Potential Use of Micro-financing in Support of CDM projects in LDC countries", an in-depth study of the synergies between micro finance and programmatic CDM, as a means to improve the quality of life in least developed countries. Written for the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, December 2009.

"Regulatory Hurdles that can be Overcome". A brief paper summarizing the regulatory hurdles that have been identified by programmatic CDM practitioners, with suggestions on how to deal with them. September 2008.

“Scaling Up Demand –Side Energy Efficiency Improvement Through Programmatic CDM”, with Michael Phillips, for the Sustainable Development Network of the World Bank. ESMAP Technical Paper 120/07 December 2007

Potential and Barriers for End-Use Energy Efficiency through Programmatic CDM”, co-authored with Miriam Hinostroza, Chia-Chin Cheng, Xianli Zhu, Jorgen Fenhann, and Francisco Avendano,  CD4CDM Working Paper Series, Working Paper No. 4, UNEP Risų Centre, Denmark, September 2007

Let There be Light in the CDM” co-authored with Martina Bosi, an short article on the potential for energy efficiency with programmatic CDM.  Climate Business Network, February 2007

"Achieving Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in Developing Countries Through Energy Efficient Lighting Project in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)".  This paper addresses the opportunity to use the financial leverage of the CDM to facilitate efficient lighting projects in developing countries, noting how established efficient lighting methodologies and practices can be used to comply with CDM methodological requirements. The paper shows the complementarities and synergies between the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the CDM. The study was prepared for the Carbon Finance Unit of the World Bank. November 2006.

"Note on Policies, Programs and Bundles in the CDM", clarifying the difference among the three concepts from the perspective of the CDM".   Written for the Carbon Finance Unit of the World Bank. March 2006

“Policies and Programs in the CDM”, co-authored with Erik Haites, analysis of the potential of the COP decision on CDM programs, for the International Institute of Sustainable Development, Canada. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Canada, January 2006

“Policies and Programs in the CDM”. A short note on the COP/MOP 1 decision to include programs in the CDM. December 2005.

“Programmatic CDM Project Activities: Eligibility, Methodological Requirements and Implementation”, co-authored with Margaree Consultants and Econergy International Corporation. The study assesses the eligibility and proposes the methodological requirements of programmatic CDM by analyzing the existing regulatory framework of the Kyoto Protocol and the 13 projects in the UNFCCC project pipeline that have programmatic characteristics.  The study argues that there are no regulatory impediments to including programmatic project activities in the CDM during the current commitment period. The study was prepared for the Carbon Finance Business Unit of the World Bank. November 2005.

“Evolving to a Sector-Based Clean Development Mechanism”, co-authored with Jose Luis Samaniego. The paper proposes broadening the post 2012 market-based participation of developing countries to include regional, sectoral, sub-sectoral, or cross-sectoral, which would be the result of specific sustainable development policies. Chapter 4 of the book Building on the Kyoto Protocol: Options for Protecting the Climate, Kevin Baumert, editor. ISBN: 1-56973-524-7. Published by the World Resources Institute, Washington D.C.   2002.